Peptide YY (PYY) is a postprandially released gut hormone. Peripheral administration of one form of the peptide PYY3-36 produces a short-term reduction in food intake in rodents. Initial reports suggested that effects of PYY3-36 on food intake are mediated by increasing the anorexigenic drive from melanocortin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. However, more recent data have demonstrated that the anorexigenic activity of PYY3-36 is not dependent on melanocortin ligands or their receptors in the CNS. We demonstrate here that the anorexigenic actions of PYY3-36 are also not dependent on the vagus nerve, a common pathway of satiety signaling. Peripherally administered PYY3-36 activates neurons in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius, brainstem areas known to mediate effects of certain aversive stimuli. Furthermore, peripheral administration of PYY3-36 causes conditioned taste aversion in mice. Thus, inhibition of food intake by PYY3-36 may result in part from induction of an aversive response.