Soy and its constituents have been shown in many in vivo and in vitro studies and in some epidemiological studies to have anti-cancer effects. Some soy constituents, however, also stimulate cell proliferation, which has raised concerns in promoting soy intake among breast cancer survivors. To investigate whether soy intake may be associated with breast cancer survival, we evaluated data from a cohort of 1459 breast cancer patients who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study between 1996 and 1998. Usual soy food intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. The median follow-up time for this cohort of women was 5.2 years. We found that soy intake prior to cancer diagnosis was unrelated to disease-free breast cancer survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.33 for the highest tertile compared to the lowest tertile). The association between soy protein intake and breast cancer survival did not differ according to ER/PR status, tumor stage, age at diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), or menopausal status. Additionally, the soy-survival association did not appear to vary according to XbaI or PvuII polymorphisms in ER-alpha, or C(14206)T, G(25652)A, or A(50766)G polymorphisms in ER-beta. These data suggest that soyfoods do not have an adverse effect on breast cancer survival.