Urinary bladder malfunction and disorders are caused by congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, radiation, and nerve injuries. Loss of normal bladder function results in urinary tract infection, incontinence, renal failure, and end-stage renal dysfunction. In severe cases, bladder augmentation is required using segments of the gastrointestinal tract. However, use of gastrointestinal mucosa can result in complications such as electrolyte imbalance, stone formation, urinary tract infection, mucous production, and malignancy. Recent tissue engineering techniques use acellular grafts, cultured cells combined with biodegradable scaffolds, and cell sheets. These techniques are not all currently applicable for human bladder reconstruction. However, new avenues for bladder reconstruction maybe facilitated by a better understanding of urogenital development, the cellular and molecular biology of urothelium, and cell-cell interactions, which modulate tissue repair, homeostasis, and disease progression.