Impaired renal function and albuminuria, common among people with type 2 diabetes, are strong predictors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. However, the relationships among albuminuria and measures of calcified atherosclerotic plaque are unknown. Coronary and carotid artery calcified plaque were measured using fast-gated helical computed tomography, and B-mode ultrasonography measured common carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) in 588 white participants with type 2 diabetes from 325 families ascertained for the presence of multiple siblings with type 2 diabetes. Measured risk factors included age, gender, BP, body mass index, GFR, glycosylated hemoglobin, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, smoking, and medications that affect urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Generalized estimating equations with exchangeable correlation and the sandwich estimator of the variance were used to test for an association among coronary artery calcified plaque, carotid artery calcified plaque, carotid IMT, and ACR while adjusting for measured risk factors. Participants had a mean +/- SD (median) age of 61.2 +/- 9.2 yr (61.0 yr), ACR of 106.2 +/- 590 mg/g (12.9 mg/g), GFR of 93.3 +/- 33.2 ml/min (87.4 ml/min), coronary artery calcium mass score of 1394 +/- 2685 (323), carotid artery calcium mass score of 295 +/- 652 (51), and IMT of 0.66 +/- 0.12 mm (0.65 mm). Adjusting for the measured covariates, ACR was strongly and positively associated with coronary artery calcium (P = 0.004) and carotid artery calcium (P = 0.0004). Albuminuria is strongly associated with calcified plaque in the coronary and carotid arteries in white individuals with type 2 diabetes and relatively preserved renal function.