PURPOSE OF REVIEW - This article reviews the recent literature concerning important issues in the management of patients with bladder cancer. A brief overview of all aspects of bladder cancer including the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed with a focus on recent advances.
RECENT FINDINGS - Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The treatment for bladder cancer should be based on individual patient risk assessment and should include a multidisciplinary approach. In patients with superficial bladder cancer, research has focused on improving and optimizing intravesical therapy to reduce tumor recurrence and progression as well as on methods to better select the most appropriate treatment for patients with high-risk features. The important prognostic and therapeutic role of lymphadenectomy during radical cystectomy has become apparent and recent work has attempted to better define what should be considered the standard for lymph node dissection. Finally, in an attempt to improve survival, advances have been made using systemic chemotherapy in both the perioperative settings as well as for treatment of metastatic bladder cancer.
SUMMARY - Research continues to improve our understanding of bladder cancer. This ongoing investigation is currently being translated to the bedside with refinements in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with bladder cancer.