Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are rare neoplasms originating from the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) stem cells. Although the majority of PETs are sporadic, they frequently occur in familial syndromes. PETs may cause a variety of functional syndromes or symptoms of local progression if they are non-functional. General neuroendocrine tumor markers are highly sensitive in the diagnostic assessment of a PET. Imaging studies for tumor localization and staging include computer tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), In(111)-octreotide scan, MIBG, and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Treatment of PETs often requires a multi-modality approach; however, surgical resection remains the only curative therapy for localized (non-metastatic) disease. Treatment of metastatic disease includes biologic agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and liver-directed therapies.
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.