Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 is a ubiquitously expressed chaperone that stabilizes expression of multiple signaling kinases involved in growth regulation, including ErbB2, Raf-1, and Akt. The chaperone activity of Hsp90 requires ATP, which binds with approximately 10-fold lower affinity than ADP. This suggests that Hsp90 may be a physiological ATP sensor, regulating the stability of growth signaling cascades in relation to cellular energy charge. Here we show that lowering ATP concentration by inhibiting glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration in isolated myocytes triggers rapid dissociation of Hsp90 from ErbB2 and degradation of ErbB2 along with other client proteins. The effect of disrupting Hsp90 chaperone activity by ATP depletion was similar to the effect of the pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. ATP depletion-induced disruption of Hsp90 chaperone activity was associated with cellular resistance to growth factor activation of intracellular signaling. ErbB2 degradation was also induced by the physiological stress of beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation in electrically stimulated cells. These results support a role for Hsp90 as an ATP sensor that modulates tissue growth factor responsiveness under metabolically stressed conditions and provide a novel mechanism by which cellular responsiveness to growth factor stimulation is modulated by cellular energy charge.