Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has derived a variety of means to evade the host immune response. HIV-derived proteins, including Tat, Nef, and Env, have all been reported to decrease expression of host molecules such as CD4 and major histocompatibility complex I, which would assist in limiting viral replication. The mannose receptor (MR) on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) has been proposed to function as an effective antigen-capture molecule, as well as a receptor for entering pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis carinii. Regulation of this receptor would therefore benefit HIV in removing an additional arm of the innate immune system. Previous work has shown that MR function is reduced in alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected patients and that surface MR levels are decreased by the HIV-derived protein Nef in DC. In addition, several laboratories have shown that CD4 is removed from the surface of T cells in a manner that might be applicable to decreased MR surface expression in macrophages. In the current study, we have investigated the role of Nef in removing MR from the cell surface. We have used a human macrophage cell line stably expressing the MR as well as human epithelial cells transiently expressing CD4 and a unique CD4/MR chimeric molecule constructed from the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD4 and the cytoplasmic tail portion of the MR. We show that the MR is reduced on the cell surface by approximately 50% in the presence of Nef and that the MR cytoplasmic tail can confer susceptibility to Nef in the CD4/MR chimera. These data suggest that the MR is a potential intracellular target of Nef and that this regulation may represent a mechanism to further cripple the host innate immune system.