Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands regulate endothelial membrane superoxide production.

Hwang J, Kleinhenz DJ, Lass├Ęgue B, Griendling KK, Dikalov S, Hart CM
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 288 (4): C899-905

PMID: 15590897 · DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00474.2004

Recently, we demonstrated that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) ligands, either 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) or ciglitazone, increased endothelial nitric oxide (.NO) release without altering endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression (4). However, the precise molecular mechanisms of PPAR-gamma-stimulated endothelial.NO release remain to be defined. Superoxide anion radical (O2-.) combines with .NO to decrease.NO bioavailability. NADPH oxidase, which produces O2-., and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), which degrades O2-., thereby contribute to regulation of endothelial cell.NO metabolism. Therefore, we examined the ability of PPAR-gamma ligands to modulate endothelial O2-. metabolism through alterations in the expression and activity of NADPH oxidase or Cu/Zn-SOD. Treatment with 10 microM 15d-PGJ2 or ciglitazone for 24 h decreased human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) membrane NADPH-dependent O2-. production detected with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 or ciglitazone also reduced relative mRNA levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits, nox-1, gp91phox (nox-2), and nox-4, as measured using real-time PCR analysis. Concordantly, Western blot analysis demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 or ciglitazone decreased nox-2 and nox-4 protein expression. PPAR-gamma ligands also stimulated both activity and expression of Cu/Zn-SOD in HUVEC. These data suggest that in addition to any direct effects on endothelial.NO production, PPAR-gamma ligands enhance endothelial.NO bioavailability, in part by altering endothelial O2-. metabolism through suppression of NADPH oxidase and induction of Cu/Zn-SOD. These findings further elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which PPAR-gamma ligands directly alter vascular endothelial function.

MeSH Terms (18)

Blotting, Western Cell Membrane Cells, Cultured Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Endothelial Cells Humans Hypoglycemic Agents Ligands NADPH Oxidases Nitric Oxide PPAR gamma Prostaglandin D2 Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction RNA, Messenger Superoxide Dismutase Superoxides Thiazolidinediones Umbilical Veins

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