In this report, a method is presented for gaining direct access to cortical areas within the lateral fissure of primates for neuroanatomical tracer injections and electrode array implantation. Compared to areas on the surface of the brain, the anatomical and physiological properties of areas within the fissure are poorly understood. Typically, access to these areas is indirectly achieved by ablating or passing through intervening areas. To enable direct experimental access, a neurosurgical technique was developed in primates whereby the banks of the lateral fissure were retracted with sparing of the vascular network and intervening areas. In some animals, anatomical tracers were directly injected into target fields without contamination of other areas. In others, multichannel electrode arrays were implanted into target areas for chronic recording of neural activity. Since, these techniques could be adapted for exploration of areas within other sulci, the approach represents an important advance in efforts to elucidate the functional organization of the primate cerebral cortex.