Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a potent stimulator of insulin secretion and comprises an important component of the enteroinsular axis. GIP is synthesized in enteroendocrine K-cells located principally in the upper small intestine. The homeobox-containing gene PDX-1 is also expressed in the small intestine and plays a critical role in pancreatic development and in the expression of pancreatic-specific genes. Previous studies determined that the transcription factors GATA-4 and ISL-1 are important for GIP expression. In this study, we demonstrate that PDX-1 is also involved in regulating GIP expression in K-cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we verified the expression of PDX-1 protein in the nucleus of GIP-expressing mouse K-cells and evaluated the expression of PDX-1, serotonin, and GIP in wild-type and PDX-1(-/-) mice at 18.5 d after conception. Although we demonstrated a 97.8% reduction in the number of GIP-expressing cells in PDX-1(-/-) mice; there was no statistical difference in the number of serotonin-positive cells. Additionally, PDX-1 transcripts and protein were detected in a GIP-expressing neuroendocrine cell line, STC-1. Electromobility shift assays using STC-1 nuclear extracts demonstrated the specific binding of PDX-1 protein to a specific regulatory region in the GIP promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrated binding of PDX-1 to this same region of the GIP promoter in intact cells. Lastly, overexpression of PDX-1 in transient transfection assays led to a specific increase in the activity of GIP/Luc reporter constructs. The results of these studies indicate that the transcription factor PDX-1 plays a critical role in the cell-specific expression of the GIP gene.