Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Uremic malnutrition and chronic inflammation are important comorbid conditions, closely associated with CVD risk in ESRD patients. A pathophysiologic link between uremic malnutrition, chronic inflammation, and atherosclerosis has been proposed in this patient population. Uremic malnutrition can result from chronic inflammation and can accelerate the progression of cardiovascular disease. Chronic inflammation can also directly predispose ESRD patients to a proatherogenic state. Both uremic malnutrition and chronic inflammation are also associated with increased oxidative stress, a condition proposed as a unifying concept of CVD in uremia. Although a single common etiology has not been identified in this complex process, nutritional, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant interventions can provide potential treatment options to improve the high mortality and morbidity in ESRD patients.