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Idiopathic myelofibrosis is a rare hematologic disorder that is occasionally associated with pulmonary hypertension and has been cured with bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Most cases occur in older adults, but children with similar clinical and pathologic findings have been described. The authors describe a critically ill male infant with idiopathic myelofibrosis and subtle findings suggestive of pulmonary hypertension who was treated with BMT after failing to respond to chemotherapy. After BMT, the patient's clinical course improved in all respects, but he ultimately died of progressive pulmonary hypertension.