Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach for decades unless pharmacologically eradicated. We hypothesized that this flagellated pathogen escapes immune clearance, in part, by avoiding detection by the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). In contrast to other gram-negative microbes, H. pylori did not release flagellin. Furthermore, recombinant H. pylori flagellin (FlaA) was significantly less potent (1000-fold) than Salmonella typhimurium flagellin in activating TLR5-mediated interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. TLR5 can mediate flagellin-induced IL-8 secretion via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling; however, compared with potent induction by S. typhimurium flagellin, H. pylori FlaA-dependent p38 activation was substantially attenuated. In addition, disruption of H. pylori flaA decreased motility but had no effect on H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion, which indicates that H. pylori flagellin plays no role in activating epithelial orchestration of inflammation. We conclude that H. pylori evades TLR5-mediated detection, which may contribute to its long-term persistence in individual hosts.