F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP's) are biologically active prostanoids formed by free radical-mediated peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Four different F2-IsoP regioisomers (5-, 8-, 12-, and 15-series), each comprising eight racemic diastereomers, total 64 compounds. Information regarding the biological activity of IsoP's is largely limited to 15-F2t-IsoP (8-iso-PGF2alpha). We recently demonstrated that 15-F2t-IsoP and its metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP, evoked vasoconstriction and TXA2 generation in retina and brain microvasculature. We have now examined and compared the biological activities of a series of recently synthesized new 5-, 12-, and 15-series F2-IsoP isomers in pig retinal and brain microvasculature. We hereby show that other 15-series F2-IsoP isomers, 15-epi-15-F2t-IsoP, ent-15-F2t-IsoP, and ent-15-epi-15-F2t-IsoP, are also potent vasoconstrictors. The 12-series isomers tested, 12-F2t-IsoP and 12-epi-12-F2t-IsoP, also caused marked vasoconstriction. Of the 5-series isomers tested, 5-F2t-IsoP and 5-epi-5-F2t-IsoP possessed no vasomotor properties, whereas ent-5-F2t-IsoP caused modest vasoconstriction. The vasoconstriction of ent-5-F2t-IsoP, 12-F2t-IsoP, and 12-epi-12-F2t-IsoP was abolished by removal of the endothelium, by TXA2 synthase and receptor inhibitor (CGS12970, L670,596), and by receptor-mediated Ca2+ channel blockade (SK & F96365); correspondingly, these isomers increased TXB2 formation by activating Ca2+ influx (detected with fura 2-AM) through non-voltage-dependent receptor-mediated Ca2+ entry (SK & F96365 sensitive) in endothelial cells. In conclusion, as seen with 15-F2t-IsoP, ent-5-F2t-IsoP, 12-F2t-IsoP, and 12-epi-12-F2t-IsoP constricted both retinal and brain microvessels by inducing endothelium-dependent TXA2 synthesis. These new findings broaden the scope of our understanding regarding the potential involvement of F2-IsoP's as mediators of oxidant injury.