The transporter associated with the antigen processing 1 (TAP1) gene encodes a subunit for a transporter, presumed to be involved in the delivery of peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to class I molecules. We have generated mice with a disrupted TAP1 gene using embryonic stem cell technology. TAP1-deficient mice are defective in the stable assembly and intracellular transport of class I molecules and consequently show severely reduced levels of surface class I molecules. These properties are strikingly similar to those described for the TAP2 mutant cell line RMA-S. Cells from the TAP1-deficient mice are unable to present cytosolic antigens to class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells. As predicted from the near absence of class I surface expression, TAP1-deficient mice lack CD4-8+ T cells.