Analysis of specific interactions of native protein phosphatase 1 isoforms with targeting subunits.

Colbran RJ, Carmody LC, Bauman PA, Wadzinski BE, Bass MA
Methods Enzymol. 2003 366: 156-75

PMID: 14674248 · DOI:10.1016/s0076-6879(03)66014-3

Expression of recombinant PP1 isoforms with fully authentic properties has proven to be a challenge for several laboratories. In order to circumvent this technical limitation in the investigation of isoform-specific roles for PP1, methods have been developed to analyze specific properties of native PP1 isoforms. The well-documented method of ethanol precipitation of tissue extracts has been used to dissociate phosphatase catalytic subunits from their endogenous regulatory subunits and other cellular proteins. Although very low levels of PP1 and PP2A regulatory subunits are sometimes detected in PPC preparations, they are not associated with their respective catalytic subunits because they do not copurify with the catalytic subunits on microcystin-Sepharose (Bauman & Colbran, not shown). Thus, the PPC preparation represents a mixture of native monomeric phosphatase catalytic subunits (including PP1 isoforms, PP2AC, PP4C, and PP6C) that can be used to analyze their interactions with other proteins. The methods described in this report rely on the availability of highly specific antibodies to PP1 isoforms. The sheep antibodies have previously proven effective for immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation, whereas rabbit antibodies have also been used for immunocytochemistry. This paper documents the use of these antibodies in Far-Western overlay and glutathione-agarose cosedimentation assays to investigate interactions of specific PP1 isoforms with recombinant fragments of PP1-targeting subunits (spinophilin, neurabin and GM). Moreover, covalent coupling of affinity-purified sheep antibodies to agarose provided a means for the immuno-isolation of PP1 beta and PP1 gamma 1 from the PPC preparation. Active catalytic subunits are recovered from the affinity resin using chaotropic agents, permitting for the first time the assessment of the effects of specific targeting subunits on activities of individual native PP1 isoforms. These methods have been used successfully to demonstrate that some PP1-interacting proteins discriminate among the isoforms. The isoform inhibition assays provide a measure of the binding equilibrium in the milieu of the phosphatase assay. For example, while some PP1-binding proteins inhibit native PP1 beta and native PP1 gamma 1 with equivalent potency (e.g., PKA-phosphorylated inhibitor-1), spinophilin, neurabin and GM differentiate between these two isoforms; spinophilin and neurabin fragments inhibit native PP1 gamma 1 approximately 20-fold more potently than they inhibit native PP1 beta (Fig. 4), whereas GM inhibits native PP1 beta more potently than native PP1 gamma 1 (not shown). Moreover, the activity of native PP1 gamma 1 is approximately 100-fold more sensitive to neurabin and spinophilin than is the activity of bacterially-expressed recombinant PP1 gamma 1 (Fig. 4). The interpretation of these inhibition assays is consistent with data obtained in Far-Western overlay (Fig. 2) and glutathione-agarose cosedimentation assays (Fig. 3), which assess more stable interactions of PP1 isoforms. Thus, spinophilin and neurabin selectively bind PP1 gamma 1 over PP1 beta, whereas GM is highly selective for PP1 beta. These data are consistent with previous experiments that showed spinophilin and neurabin are present in PP1 gamma 1 complexes in brain extracts, but not in PP1 beta complexes. Moreover, only PP1 beta has been identified in complexes with GM in muscle extracts, although these data did not exclude the possibility that other isoforms were also present. Presumably, these isoform-selective interactions confer different functions on PP1. In summary, we have developed methods that should prove useful in defining the isoform-selectivity of other PP1-targeting subunits. Moreover, these methods may be employed to identify domains in PP1-interacting proteins that confer isoform specificity. Similar strategies may also be used to explore interactions of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits with other proteins.

MeSH Terms (15)

Amino Acid Sequence Animals Antibody Specificity Brain Isoenzymes Kinetics Molecular Sequence Data Phosphoprotein Phosphatases Phosphorylation Prosencephalon Protein Phosphatase 1 Protein Subunits Rats Sequence Alignment Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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