Fibroblast growth factor receptors are expressed by some T cells, and provide costimulation for these cells. Such receptors allow T cells to respond to fibroblast growth factors expressed in response to injury and inflammation and may provide a mechanism for 'context-dependent' responses to antigens within the local microenvironment. The mechanisms by which fibroblast growth factor receptors might interact with the TCR signalling pathway are not defined. Here we show that the TCR and fibroblast growth factor receptors co-localize during combined stimulation. Signalling via fibroblast growth factor receptors alone results in phosphorylation of Lck and induces nuclear translocation of nuclear factors of activated T cells. Combined stimulation via fibroblast growth factor receptors and the TCR synergistically enhances the activation of nuclear factors of activated T cells. The results suggest that peptide growth factors produced at sites of injury and inflammation can contribute to the outcome of T-cell encounters with antigen.