Tissue remodelling is a dynamic process that occurs during fetal or adult life and involves a modification of the original organization and function of a tissue. Tissue remodelling is observed in physiological and pathological conditions such as during wound healing or in the mammary gland during the course of pregnancy. In this review we will discuss the remodelling occurring in the liver as a consequence of chronic inflammation, as observed in chronic hepatitis, or as a consequence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression in more detail. We will consider how altered deposition and turn-over of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins could lead to development of liver fibrosis, and how the exacerbation of fibrosis could underlie the development of cirrhosis. The involvement of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines commonly used as therapeutic agents, such as Interferon-a, is then evaluated with a particular focus on modulation of ECM proteolysis. Finally, we analyze the role of alterations of the surrounding microenvironment including ECM, growth factors, cytokines and membrane receptors for ECM ligands in the development of HCC and in its invasive behaviour.