We studied S-phase fraction (SPF) and aneuploidy in peripheral blood leucocytes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CML-CP, n=41), accelerated phase (CML-AP, n=6), and control subjects (n=12) with an aim to find out their role in early detection of accelerated phase. The SPF and aneuploidy were studied through flow-cytometry using LT-Mod. Fit software. Mean SPF value in CML-AP (9.28+/-3.46%) and in CML-CP (4.76+/-2.30%) were significantly higher than in normal controls (0.28+/-0.21%), (P<0.005, P<0.001). CML-CP patients having higher SPF (>7%) converted to accelerated phase within 18 months of follow-up while those with lower SPF (<7%) did not. Aneuploidy was present in 34.14% of CML-CP and all patients of CML-AP whereas no control subjects showed aneuploidy. Among CML-CP patients having SPF >7%, 86% developed aneuploidy during follow-up as compared to 18.50% of CML-CP with less than 7% SPF. We conclude that peripheral blood SPF and aneuploidy could be important parameters for prediction of evolution to accelerated phase in CML patients.