The olfactory response in antennae of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, was investigated by measuring electroantennograms (EAGs) in restrained animals. The amplitude of the EAG response to pulses of ethyl acetate, octanol, or fenchone, exhibited a robust, light entrained, circadian rhythm that persisted at least 14 days in constant darkness. Dilution-response curves measured at the peak and trough of the rhythm indicated there was a 10-fold change in sensitivity. The EAG rhythm was abolished by severing the optic tracts, while entrainment was abolished by ablation of the compound eyes. The results indicate that the circadian system modulates olfactory sensitivity in the antennae and that the rhythm is driven by a circadian pacemaker in the optic lobes that is entrained by photoreceptors in the compound eyes.