Bladder cancer is a significant public health problem responsible for more than 130,000 deaths annually worldwide. Disease prevalence is also remarkable, with more than 500,000 patients carrying the diagnosis in the United States alone. Significant progress has been made in understanding the underlying molecular and genetic events in bladder cancer. However, there remains a great need for the development of reliable markers that can provide clinically useful information regarding diagnosis and prognosis and to facilitate the selection of appropriate therapy in the individual patient. Ongoing and future investigation is anticipated to refine treatment of patients with high-risk superficial disease, to determine the role of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk invasive disease, and to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic bladder cancer.