F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are well-established sensitive and specific markers of oxidative stress in vivo. Isofurans (IsoFs) are also products of lipid peroxidation, but in contrast to F2-IsoPs, their formation is favored when oxygen tension is increased in vitro or in vivo. Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) may not only lead to oxidative damage to brain tissue but also potentially result in increased intracellular oxygen tension, thereby influencing relative concentrations of F2-IsoPs and IsoFs. In this study, we attempted to compare the levels of F2-IsoPs and IsoFs esterified in phospholipids in the substantia nigra (SN) from patients with PD to those of age-matched controls as well as patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results demonstrated that IsoFs but not F2-IsoPs in the SN of patients with PD and DLB were significantly higher than those of controls. Levels of IsoFs and F2-IsoPs in the SN of patients with MSA and AD were indistinguishable from those of age-matched controls. This preferential increase in IsoFs in the SN of patients with PD or DLB not only indicates a unique mode of oxidant injury in these two diseases but also suggests different underlying mechanisms of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD and DLB from those of MSA.