Coordinated neutrophil and monocyte recruitment is a characteristic feature of acute lung inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2, JE) and the chemokine receptor CCR2 in regulating alveolar leukocyte traffic. Groups of wild-type (WT) mice, CCR2-deficient mice, lethally irradiated CCR2-deficient and WT mice that were reciprocally bone marrow transplanted (chimeric CCR2 deficient and WT, respectively), chimeric CCR2-deficient mice with an enriched CCR2(+) alveolar macrophage population, and CCR2-deficient mice transfused with CCR2(+) mononuclear cells were treated with intratracheal CCL2 and/or Escherichia coli endotoxin. Our data show that alveolar monocyte recruitment is strictly dependent on CCR2. LPS-induced neutrophil migration to the lungs is CCR2 independent. However, when CCR2-bearing blood monocytes are present, alveolar neutrophil accumulation is accelerated and drastically amplified. We suggest that this hitherto unrecognized cooperativity between monocytes and neutrophils contributes to the strong, coordinated leukocyte efflux in lung inflammation.