A significant body of research has implicated the process of angiogenesis in the growth and spread of tumors. Elucidation of the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis has led to the development of multiple anti-angiogenic agents. However, the perceived differences between the results of preclinical studies and those of early phases of clinical trials have led to questions being asked regarding the efficacy of these agents. There are many reasons for this discrepancy, including difficulties in the appropriate interpretation of preclinical data and clinical trial design. Further insights into the complex process of angiogenesis are essential for the development of effective anti-angiogenic regimens.