The role of microscopy in understanding atherosclerotic lysosomal lipid metabolism.

Jerome WG, Yancey PG
Microsc Microanal. 2003 9 (1): 54-67

PMID: 12597787 · DOI:10.1017/S1431927603030010

Microscopy has played a critical role in first identifying and then defining the role of lysosomes in formation of atherosclerotic foam cells. We review the evidence implicating lysosomal lipid accumulation as a factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis with reference to the role of microscopy. In addition, we explore mechanisms by which lysosomal lipid engorgement occurs. Low density lipoproteins which have become modified are the major source of lipid for foam cell formation. These altered lipoproteins are taken into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivered to lysosomes. Under normal conditions, lipids from these lipoproteins are metabolized and do not accumulate in lysosomes. In the atherosclerotic foam cell, this normal metabolism is inhibited so that cholesterol and cholesteryl esters accumulate in lysosomes. Studies of cultured cells incubated with modified lipoproteins suggests this abnormal metabolism occurs in two steps. Initially, hydrolysis of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters occurs normally, but the resultant free cholesterol cannot exit the lysosome. Further lysosomal cholesterol accumulation inhibits hydrolysis, producing a mixture of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters within swollen lysosomes. Various lipoprotein modifications can produce this lysosomal engorgement in vitro and it remains to be seen which modifications are most important in vivo.

MeSH Terms (15)

Animals Arteriosclerosis Cholesterol Endocytosis Foam Cells Humans Hydrolases In Vitro Techniques Lipid Metabolism Lipoproteins Lipoproteins, LDL Lysosomes Macrophages Microscopy Microscopy, Electron

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