Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) action on the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), generates prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-G) and ethanolamides (PG-EA), respectively. The diversity of PG-Gs and PG-EAs that can be formed enzymatically following COX-2 oxygenation of endocannabinoids was examined in cellular and subcellular systems. In cellular systems, glycerol esters and ethanolamides of PGE(2), PGD(2), and PGF(2alpha) were major products of the endocannabinoid-derived COX-2 products, PGH(2)-G and PGH(2)-EA. The sequential action of purified COX-2 and thromboxane synthase on AEA and 2-AG provided thromboxane A(2) ethanolamide and glycerol ester, respectively. Similarly, bovine prostacyclin synthase catalyzed the isomerization of the intermediate endoperoxides, PGH(2)-G and PGH(2)-EA, to the corresponding prostacyclin derivatives. Quantification of the efficiency of prostaglandin and thromboxane synthase-directed endoperoxide isomerization demonstrated that PGE, PGD, and PGI synthases catalyze the isomerization of PGH(2)-G at rates approaching those observed with PGH(2). In contrast, thromboxane synthase was far more efficient at catalyzing PGH(2) isomerization than at catalyzing the isomerization of PGH(2)-G. These results define the in vitro diversity of endocannabinoid-derived prostanoids and will permit focused investigations into their production and potential biological actions in vivo.