Although surfactant apoproteins are known to be mediators of innate responses, their relationship to adaptive responses has not been examined extensively. We investigated possible links between surfactant apoproteins and responses to allergens by studying alterations in surfactant apoproteins A, B, and D in a murine model of allergic pulmonary inflammation. Three murine strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6, and 129J) demonstrated increased immunostaining of surfactant apoproteins A and D in nonciliated epithelial cells of noncartilaginous airways after aerosolized challenge. In contrast, surfactant apoprotein B immunostaining was unchanged. Immunoblotting demonstrated increased surfactant A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after allergen sensitization and challenge. Surfactant apoprotein A and D induction required T and/or B lymphocyte responses to allergen, since the induction was absent in recombinase-activating gene-deficient mice, which lack functional lymphocytes. We conclude that increased immunoreactivity of two collectins, surfactant apoproteins A and D, occurs within the response to allergen. Our findings support a model in which surfactant apoproteins A and D are important to both innate immunity and adaptive immune responses to allergens.