A 12-amino-acid segment, present in type s2 but not type s1 Helicobacter pylori VacA proteins, abolishes cytotoxin activity and alters membrane channel formation.

McClain MS, Cao P, Iwamoto H, Vinion-Dubiel AD, Szabo G, Shao Z, Cover TL
J Bacteriol. 2001 183 (22): 6499-508

PMID: 11673417 · PMCID: PMC95478 · DOI:10.1128/JB.183.22.6499-6508.2001

Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium associated with gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans, secretes a protein toxin, VacA, that causes vacuolar degeneration of epithelial cells. Several different families of H. pylori vacA alleles can be distinguished based on sequence diversity in the "middle" region (i.e., m1 and m2) and in the 5' end of the gene (i.e., s1 and s2). Type s2 VacA toxins contain a 12-amino-acid amino-terminal hydrophilic segment, which is absent from type s1 toxins. To examine the functional properties of VacA toxins containing this 12-amino-acid segment, we analyzed a wild-type s1/m1 VacA and a chimeric s2/m1 VacA protein. Purified s1/m1 VacA from H. pylori strain 60190 induced vacuolation in HeLa and Vero cells, whereas the chimeric s2/m1 toxin (in which the s1 sequence of VacA from strain 60190 was replaced with the s2 sequence from strain Tx30a) lacked detectable cytotoxic activity. Type s1/m1 VacA from strain 60190 formed membrane channels in a planar lipid bilayer assay at a significantly higher rate than did s2/m1 VacA. However, membrane channels formed by type s1 VacA and type s2 VacA proteins exhibited similar anion selectivities (permeability ratio, P(Cl)/P(Na) = 5). When an equimolar mixture of the chimeric s2/m1 toxin and the wild-type s1/m1 toxin was added to HeLa cells, the chimeric toxin completely inhibited the activity of the s1/m1 toxin. Thus, the s2/m1 toxin exhibited a dominant-negative phenotype similar to that of a previously described mutant toxin, VacA-(Delta6-27). Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that both s2/m1 VacA and VacA-(Delta6-27) could physically interact with a c-myc epitope-tagged s1/m1 VacA, which suggests that the dominant-negative phenotype results from the formation of heterooligomeric VacA complexes with defective functional activity. Despite detectable differences in the channel-forming activities and cytotoxic properties of type s1 and type s2 VacA proteins, the conservation of type s2 sequences in many H. pylori isolates suggests that type s2 VacA proteins retain an important biological activity.

MeSH Terms (12)

Animals Bacterial Proteins Cercopithecus aethiops Cytotoxins Genotype HeLa Cells Helicobacter pylori Humans Ion Channels Protein Binding Recombinant Fusion Proteins Vero Cells

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