Characterization of nucleoside and DNA adducts formed by S-(1-acetoxymethyl)glutathione and implications for dihalomethane-glutathione conjugates.

Marsch GA, Mundkowski RG, Morris BJ, Manier ML, Hartman MK, Guengerich FP
Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 14 (5): 600-8

PMID: 11368561 · DOI:10.1021/tx010006h

S-(1-Acetoxymethyl)glutathione (GSCH(2)OAc) was synthesized and used as a model for the reaction of glutathione (GSH)-dihaloalkane conjugates with nucleosides and DNA. Previously, S-[1-(N(2)-deoxyguanosinyl)methyl]GSH had been identified as the major adduct formed in the reaction of GSCH(2)OAc with deoxyguanosine. GSCH(2)OAc was incubated with the three remaining deoxyribonucleosides to identify other possible adducts. Adducts to all three nucleosides were found using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). The adduct of GSCH(2)OAc and deoxyadenosine was formed in yield of up to 0.05% and was identified as S-[1-(N(7)-deoxyadenosinyl)methyl]GSH. The pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside adducts were formed more efficiently, resulting in yields of 1 and 2% for the GSCH(2)OAc adducts derived from thymidine and deoxycytidine, respectively, but their lability prevented their structural identification by (1)H NMR. On the basis of the available UV spectra, we propose the structures S-[1-(N(3)-thymidinyl)methyl]GSH and S-[1-(N(4)-deoxycytidinyl)methyl]GSH. Because adduct degradation occurred most rapidly at alkaline and neutral pH values, an enzymatic DNA digestion procedure was developed for the rapid hydrolysis of DNA to deoxyribonucleosides at acidic pH. DNA digests were completed in less than 2 h with a two-step method, which consisted of a 15 min incubation of DNA with high concentrations of deoxyribonuclease II and phosphodiesterase II at pH 4.5, followed by incubation of resulting nucleotides with acid phosphatase. Analysis of the hydrolysis products by HPLC-ESI-MS indicated the presence of the thymidine adduct.

MeSH Terms (11)

Deoxyadenosines Deoxycytidine Deoxyguanosine DNA DNA Adducts Endodeoxyribonucleases Exonucleases Glutathione Methylene Chloride Nucleosides Thymidine

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