Model for a factor IX activation complex on blood platelets: dimeric conformation of factor XIa is essential.

Gailani D, Ho D, Sun MF, Cheng Q, Walsh PN
Blood. 2001 97 (10): 3117-22

PMID: 11342438 · DOI:10.1182/blood.v97.10.3117

Human coagulation factor XI (FXI) is a plasma serine protease composed of 2 identical 80-kd polypeptides connected by a disulfide bond. This dimeric structure is unique among blood coagulation enzymes. The hypothesis was tested that dimeric conformation is required for normal FXI function by generating a monomeric version of FXI (FXI/PKA4) and comparing it to wild-type FXI in assays requiring factor IX activation by activated FXI (FXIa). FXI/PKA4 was made by replacing the FXI A4 domain with the A4 domain from prekallikrein (PK). A dimeric version of FXI/PKA4 (FXI/PKA4-Gly326) was prepared as a control. Activated FXI/PKA4 and FXI/PKA4-Gly326 activate factor IX with kinetic parameters similar to those of FXIa. In kaolin-triggered plasma clotting assays containing purified phospholipid, FXI/PKA4 and FXI/PKA4-Gly326 have coagulant activity similar to FXI. The surface of activated platelets is likely to be a physiologic site for reactions involving FXI/FXIa. In competition binding assays FXI/PKA4, FXI/PKA4-Gly326, and FXI have similar affinities for activated platelets (K(i) = 12-16 nM). In clotting assays in which phospholipid is replaced by activated platelets, the dimeric proteins FXI and FXI/PKA4-Gly326 promote coagulation similarly; however, monomeric FXI/PKA4 has greatly reduced activity. Western immunoblot analysis confirmed that activated monomeric FXI/PKA4 activates factor IX poorly in the presence of activated platelets. These findings demonstrate the importance of the dimeric state to FXI activity and suggest a novel model for factor IX activation in which FXIa binds to activated platelets by one chain of the dimer, while binding to factor IX through the other.

MeSH Terms (16)

Blood Coagulation Blood Platelets Blotting, Western Cell Membrane Dimerization Enzyme Activation Factor IX Factor IXa Factor XI Factor XIa Humans Kinetics Platelet Activation Prekallikrein Protein Conformation Recombinant Fusion Proteins

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