The authors evaluated education attainment and neuropsychological deficits in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and silent cerebral infarcts. Children with silent infarcts had twice the rate of school difficulties as children without infarcts. Eighty percent of silent infarct cases had clinically significant cognitive deficits, whereas 35% had deficits in academic skills. Children with silent cerebral infarcts show high rates of poor educational attainment, cognitive deficits, and frontal lobe injury. Poor school performance in SCD is one indicator of silent infarcts.