The nervous system can modulate neurotransmitter release by neurotransmitter activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. We found that microinjection of G protein betagamma subunits (Gbetagamma) mimics serotonin's inhibitory effect on neurotransmission. Release of free Gbetagamma was critical for this effect because a Gbetagamma scavenger blocked serotonin's effect. Gbetagamma had no effect on fast, action potential-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release that triggered neurotransmission. Inhibition of neurotransmitter release by serotonin was still seen after blockade of all classical Gbetagamma effector pathways. Thus, Gbetagamma blocked neurotransmitter release downstream of Ca2+ entry and may directly target the exocytotic fusion machinery at the presynaptic terminal.