Pilot trial of interleukin-2 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for the mobilization of progenitor cells in advanced breast cancer patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy: expansion of immune effectors within the stem-cell graft and post-stem-cell infusion.

Sosman JA, Stiff P, Moss SM, Sorokin P, Martone B, Bayer R, van Besien K, Devine S, Stock W, Peace D, Chen Y, Long C, Gustin D, Viana M, Hoffman R
J Clin Oncol. 2001 19 (3): 634-44

PMID: 11157013 · DOI:10.1200/JCO.2001.19.3.634

PURPOSE - To evaluate whether administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) improves mobilization of immune effector cells into the stem-cell graft of patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autografting.

PATIENTS AND METHODS - We performed a trial of stem-cell mobilization with IL-2 and G-CSF in advanced breast cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin and stem cells followed by IL-2. The trial defined immune, hematologic, and clinical effects of IL-2 in this setting.

RESULTS - Of 32 patients enrolled, nine received G-CSF alone for mobilization. Twenty-one of 23 patients mobilized with IL-2 plus G-CSF had stem cells collected with more mononuclear cells than those receiving G-CSF (19.3 v 10.4 x 10(8)/kg; P =.006), but fewer CD34(+) progenitor cells (6.9 v 22.0 x 10(6)/kg; P =.049). The IL-2 plus G-CSF-mobilized patients had greater numbers of activated T (CD3(+)/CD25(+)) cells (P =.009), natural killer (NK; CD56(+)) cells (P =.007), and activated NK (CD56 bright(+)) cells (P: =.039) than those patients mobilized with G-CSF. NK (P =.042) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) (P =.016) activity was increased in those mobilized with IL-2 + G-CSF, whereas G-CSF-mobilized patients had a decline in cytolytic activity. In the third week posttransplantation, immune reconstitution was superior in those mobilized with IL-2 plus G-CSF based on greater numbers of activated T cells (P =.003), activated NK cells (P =.04), and greater LAK activity (P =.003). The 16 of 21 IL-2 + G-CSF-mobilized patients with adequate numbers of stem cells (> 1.5 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg) collected engrafted rapidly posttransplantation.

CONCLUSION - The results demonstrate that G-CSF + IL-2 can enhance the number and function of antitumor effector cells in a mobilized autograft without impairing the hematologic engraftment, provided that CD34 cell counts are more than 1.5 x 10(6) cells/kg. Mobilization of CD34(+) stem cells does seem to be adversely affected. In those mobilized with IL-2 and G-CSF, post-stem-cell immune reconstitution of antitumor immune effector cells was enhanced.

MeSH Terms (20)

Adult Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols Breast Neoplasms Carboplatin Cyclophosphamide Cytotoxicity, Immunologic Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Drug Administration Schedule Female Graft Survival Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Humans Infusions, Intraosseous Interleukin-2 Middle Aged Pilot Projects Thiotepa

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