A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared efavirenz (600 mg every 24 h) plus indinavir (1000 mg every 8 h) with placebo (every 24 h) plus indinavir (800 mg every 8 h) among 327 nucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Patients received =2 concomitant NRTIs. Eligible patients had CD4 cell counts >50 cells/mm(3), >10,000 plasma HIV-1 RNA copies/mL, and no prior protease inhibitor or non-NRTI therapy. Patients had a mean of 2.8 years of prior NRTI therapy. At 24 weeks, plasma HIV-1 RNA level was <400 copies/mL in 68.2% of efavirenz versus 52.4% of placebo recipients (P=.004). CD4 cell count increases were 104+/-9 cells/mm(3) and 77+/-10 cells/mm(3) in efavirenz and placebo recipients, respectively (P=.023). Responses in efavirenz recipients were sustained at 48 weeks. Thus, efavirenz plus indinavir with concomitant NRTIs is effective therapy for NRTI-experienced patients.