It is now widely accepted that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is not the only atherogenic component of the lipid profile and that abnormalities in the metabolism and plasma levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may lead to accelerated growth of atherosclerotic lesions. Fibrates are the drugs of first choice in the management of hypertriglyceridemia, and are also able to substantially raise HDL. The recently published Veterans Administration-High-density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial (VA-HIT) trial showed that fibrate treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), low HDL, modestly elevated triglycerides, and normal LDL reduces the risk of a recurrent coronary event by 25%. A reasonable approach to the dyslipidemic patient with high CHD risk is to tailor the intervention to the specific lipoprotein abnormality. Under these assumptions fibrate therapy should become widespread, considering that the most common lipid alteration in CHD and patients with diabetes is low HDL and high triglycerides.