Regression of sclerosis in aging by an angiotensin inhibition-induced decrease in PAI-1.

Ma LJ, Nakamura S, Whitsitt JS, Marcantoni C, Davidson JM, Fogo AB
Kidney Int. 2000 58 (6): 2425-36

PMID: 11115076 · DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00426.x

BACKGROUND - Glomerular and vascular sclerosis increase with aging, and angiotensin inhibitors ameliorate progression of this injury. We investigated the potential for achieving regression of existing age-related sclerosis, and the mechanisms by which angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AIIRA) may affect remodeling of this sclerosis. We focused on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) because it is directly induced by angiotensin, inhibits matrix degradation, and may thus be pivotal in remodeling.

METHODS - Eighteen-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the AIIRA losartan (N = 8, 80 mg/L, dry weight), sacrificed at age 21 and 24 months, and compared with age-matched untreated controls (N = 15). Blood pressure and renal function were monitored, and morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were done on aorta and kidney.

RESULTS - Body weight increased in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and serum creatinine remained normal (24-month MAP 115 +/- 8 vs. 113 +/- 6 mm Hg, controls vs. AIIRA, P = NS). Aorta wall thickness ratio was reduced by AIIRA at 21 and 24 months vs. age-matched controls (21 months 0. 12 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.01, P = 0.006; 24 months 0.10 +/- 0.005 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.003, AIIRA vs. controls, respectively, P = 0.0027). The aorta wall thickness ratio after treatment with AIIRA for six months was even lower than that of 18-month control rats (P = 0.018). AIIRA reduced proteinuria versus age-matched control at 24 months (253 +/- 62 vs. 390 +/- 51 mg/24 h, P = 0.0017). AIIRA at 24 months decreased glomerulosclerosis versus age-matched control (sclerosis index, 0 to 4+ scale: 0.06 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.12, P = 0.0082) to levels even lower than the 18-month baseline (0.37 +/- 0.14, P = 0.014). Renal collagen content increased with aging and was decreased by AIIRA at 24 months (5.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.5% collagen, P < 0.05). Apoptosis, assessed by TUNEL, was increased in tubular and interstitial cells in aging and was reduced by AIIRA versus control and baseline, respectively (TUNEL scoring, AIIRA 24 months 0.33 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.06 +/- 0.23 and 0.80 +/- 0.05, P < 0.05). PAI-1 mRNA in kidney was decreased at 24 months in AIIRA versus age-matched controls (PAI-1/GAPDH density ratio: AIIRA 24 months 0. 34 +/- 0.05 vs. 24-month controls 0.99 +/- 0.05, P < 0.05). Increased glomerular PAI-1 immunostaining with aging was decreased by AIIRA at 24 months versus age-matched controls, even below baseline (staining score 0 to 4+, 0.57 +/- 0.15 vs. control 0.90 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05; baseline 1.05 +/- 0.02, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION - We conclude that AIIRA not only slows the progression of glomerular and vascular sclerosis in aging, but can also induce regression of these processes. The mechanisms appear to involve modulation of cortical cell turnover and inhibition of PAI-1 expression.

MeSH Terms (27)

Aging Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists Angiotensins Animals Antihypertensive Agents Aorta, Thoracic Apoptosis Arteriosclerosis Blood Pressure Body Weight Collagen Creatinine Gene Expression In Situ Nick-End Labeling Kidney Cortex Kidney Diseases Losartan Male Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 RNA, Messenger Sclerosis Transforming Growth Factor beta Transforming Growth Factor beta1

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