The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and cervical dilation and effacement, as measures of impending preterm delivery. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study collected genital tract specimens and documented cervical change from 807 eligible women between 24 and 29 weeks' gestation. BV was assessed with Nugent-scored vaginal smears, and analyzed in relation to cervical measurements. At 24-29 weeks' gestation, <7% of women had a dilated cervix, 31% had a cervix < or =2 cm, and 17.3% had BV. Unadjusted analyses found no associations between BV and cervical measurements. Adjusted logistic regression suggested an association between BV and cervical effacement among women with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) earlier in pregnancy (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% CI 0.8-4.3). Stratified analyses for BV/dilation also suggested interaction with STDs. Overall, BV was not association with cervical dilation or effacement at 24-29 weeks' gestation.