Although allogeneic transplantation can be curative for patients with sickle cell disease, the toxicity of conditioning regimens has precluded its use in adults with significant end-organ damage. Newer conditioning regimens have been developed that are less toxic and that may broaden the applicability of allogeneic transplantation in this disorder. We report two adults with end-stage sickle cell disease, who underwent allogeneic transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor after conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan and ATG. Both patients had been extensively transfused and one had multiple RBC antibodies. One of the patients also had end-stage renal disease, and was dialysis dependent. Engraftment occurred promptly in both patients. Both achieved 100% donor chimerism and both were free of pain crises after transplant. The first patient died of a respiratory failure related to chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on day 335 after transplantation. The second patient developed severe gastro-intestinal GVHD and TTP and died on day 147 after transplantation. Conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan and ATG followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation resulted in prompt and reliable engraftment in adults with end-stage sickle cell disease. The incidence of severe GVHD was unacceptably high and may be related to the ethnicity of the patients or to the inflammatory state associated with pre-existing sickle cell disease.