Caloric restriction (CR), which increases longevity and retards age-associated diseases in laboratory rodents, is being evaluated in nonhuman primate trials. CR reduces oxidative stress in rodents and appears to improve risk factors for cardiovascular disease in nonhuman primates. We tested the hypothesis that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidizability is reduced in two monkey species (rhesus and cynomolgus) subjected to chronic CR. In both species, no significant differences occurred between CR and control animals on total, LDL, or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In rhesus monkeys, triglycerides were higher in controls than CR (139 +/- 23 vs 66 +/- 8 mg/dl,p < .01, respectively). LDL from CR rhesus monkeys was reduced in triglyceride content and molecular weight compared to controls, whereas LDL composition in cynomolgus monkeys was similar in CR and control animals. In keeping with minor deviations in lipids, antioxidants, and LDL composition, no consistent differences in in vitro LDL oxidizability were apparent between CR and controls in either species.