We examined 38 appendectomies with diagnoses of mucocele, diverticulum, or adenoma to study the coincidence of appendiceal diverticula and appendiceal low-grade mucinous neoplasms and to examine the possible role of diverticula in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Invasive adenocarcinomas and retention cysts were excluded (six cases). Cases were classified as adenomas or mucinous tumors of unknown malignant potential, with or without diverticula. Medical records were reviewed for multiple parameters, including presenting symptoms, presence of pseudomyxoma peritonei, and presence of associated malignancies. Binomial statistics were used to calculate the probability that the observed prevalence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together was significantly different from the expected prevalence of diverticula or low-grade mucinous neoplasms alone, using historical controls from the literature. Twenty-five percent of the total cases (8 of 32) contained both a low-grade mucinous neoplasm (7 cystadenomas and 1 mucinous tumor of unknown malignant potential) and a diverticulum. Thus, 8 of 19 low-grade mucinous neoplasms (42%) were associated with diverticula. Of the appendices with both low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula, three contained dissecting acellular mucin within the appendiceal wall, four showed diverticular perforation, and one had pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with the ruptured diverticulum. A significant percentage (P < .001) of cases contained low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together. The case of coexistent low-grade mucinous neoplasm, diverticulum, and pseudomyxoma peritonei suggests that diverticula could play a role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. This could occur either by involvement of preexisting diverticula by the neoplasm or by distention of the appendiceal lumen by mucin, leading to increased intraluminal pressure and subsequent diverticulum formation at a weak area in the wall. Either mechanism might allow low-grade mucinous neoplasms to penetrate the appendiceal wall more easily.