A major cause of morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation is posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). In a retrospective cohort analysis of pediatric patients, we evaluated the risk factors associated with PTLD in 128 first-time lung transplant recipients from 1990 to 1997. The greatest risk factor for PTLD was a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Of the 16 patients in our analysis who had PTLD, 13 had a diagnosis of CF (odds ratio [OR]: 5.8; confidence interval 95% [CI]: 1.6 to 21.4). Because of the high frequency of PTLD in patients with CF (13 of 61; 23%), we performed a retrospective cohort analysis in which patients with CF and PTLD were designated as cases and patients with CF and without PTLD served as controls. In patients with CF, the only risk factor associated with PTLD was two or more episodes of acute rejection within 3 mo after transplantation (OR: 11.0; 95% CI: 2.7 to 55.7). Age, recipient Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus status, induction with antilymphocyte globulin or antithymocyte globulin (ATG), or use of ATG or OKT3 for acute rejection episodes were not risk factors for PTLD. The high frequency of PTLD in the subgroup of patients with two or more episodes of graft rejection within 2 mo after lung transplantation was unexpected, and warrants further investigation in prospective clinical studies and basic laboratories.