Biochemically based design of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: facile conversion of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs to potent and highly selective COX-2 inhibitors.

Kalgutkar AS, Crews BC, Rowlinson SW, Marnett AB, Kozak KR, Remmel RP, Marnett LJ
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 97 (2): 925-30

PMID: 10639181 · PMCID: PMC15432 · DOI:10.1073/pnas.97.2.925

All nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes to different extents, which accounts for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and their gastrointestinal side effects. We have exploited biochemical differences between the two COX enzymes to identify a strategy for converting carboxylate-containing NSAIDs into selective COX-2 inhibitors. Derivatization of the carboxylate moiety in moderately selective COX-1 inhibitors, such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) and arylacetic and fenamic acid NSAIDs, exemplified by indomethacin and meclofenamic acid, respectively, generated potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors. In the indomethacin series, esters and primary and secondary amides are superior to tertiary amides as selective inhibitors. Only the amide derivatives of ETYA and meclofenamic acid inhibit COX-2; the esters are either inactive or nonselective. Inhibition kinetics reveal that indomethacin amides behave as slow, tight-binding inhibitors of COX-2 and that selectivity is a function of the time-dependent step. Site-directed mutagenesis of murine COX-2 indicates that the molecular basis for selectivity differs from the parent NSAIDs and from diarylheterocycles. Selectivity arises from novel interactions at the opening and at the apex of the substrate-binding site. Lead compounds in the present study are potent inhibitors of COX-2 activity in cultured inflammatory cells. Furthermore, indomethacin amides are orally active, nonulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory agents in an in vivo model of acute inflammation. Expansion of this approach can be envisioned for the modification of all carboxylic acid-containing NSAIDs into selective COX-2 inhibitors.

MeSH Terms (26)

5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid Amides Animals Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Cell Line Cyclooxygenase 2 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Drug Design Edema Esters Gastrointestinal Diseases Hindlimb Humans Indomethacin Isoenzymes Kinetics Macrophages Male Meclofenamic Acid Membrane Proteins Mice Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley Sheep

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