Inter-individual differences in the metabolism of environmental toxicants: cytochrome P450 1A2 as a prototype.

Guengerich FP, Parikh A, Turesky RJ, Josephy PD
Mutat Res. 1999 428 (1-2): 115-24

PMID: 10517985 · DOI:10.1016/s1383-5742(99)00039-3

Cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2 provides an interesting paradigm for inter-individual differences in the metabolism of pro-carcinogens. The enzyme is known to vary 40-fold among individuals and may contribute to cancers caused by heterocyclic amines and other chemicals. Rat and human P450 1A2 are known to be 75% identical and were compared for several catalytic activities. The human enzyme was an order of magnitude more efficient in the N-hydroxylation of two heterocyclic amines. Further, the levels of P450 1A2 expressed in human livers show a 40-fold variation, with some as high as 0.25 nmol P450 1A2 per milligram microsomal protein. Some human liver samples are more active (than those isolated from polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats) in the activation of heterocyclic amines. A bacterial genotoxicity assay has been developed in which human P450 1A2 and NADPH-P450 reductase are expressed within Escherichia coli and bacterial mutants can be assayed using reversion to lac prototrophy. A random mutagenesis strategy for human P450 1A2 has been developed and used to examine the changes in catalytic activity seen with many single-amino acid substitutions. These results may be of relevance in consideration of genetic polymorphisms. Further, the findings pose a challenge to molecular epidemiology effort in that results with one substrate do not necessarily predict those for others. Some dinitropyrenes are P450 1A2 substrates but others are not. 6-Nitrochrysene can be activated by human P450 1A2 but the (mono) nitropyrenes examined were not; these were oxidized by P450 3A4 instead.

MeSH Terms (12)

Amino Acid Substitution Animals Carcinogens, Environmental Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Humans Liver Mutagenicity Tests Mutagens Pyrenes Rats Species Specificity Xenobiotics

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