Acute lung injury after hepatic cryoablation: correlation with NF-kappa B activation and cytokine production.

Blackwell TS, Debelak JP, Venkatakrishnan A, Schot DJ, Harley DH, Pinson CW, Williams P, Washington K, Christman JW, Chapman WC
Surgery. 1999 126 (3): 518-26

PMID: 10486604

BACKGROUND - Previous clinical reports have documented multisystem organ injury after hepatic cryoablation. We hypothesized that hepatic cryosurgery, but not partial hepatectomy, induces a systemic inflammatory response characterized by distant organ injury and overproduction of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)-dependent, proinflammatory cytokines.

METHODS - In this study, rats underwent either cryoablation of 35% of liver parenchyma or a similar resection of left hepatic tissue. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 levels and NF-kappa B activation were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay at 30 minutes 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours after either procedure.

RESULTS - Cryoablation of 35% of liver (n = 22 rats) resulted in lung injury and a 45% mortality rate within 24 hours of surgery, whereas 7% treated with 35% hepatectomy (n = 15 rats) died during the 24 hours after surgery (P < .05, cryoablation vs hepatectomy). Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 levels were markedly increased in rats (n = 10 rats) 1 hour after hepatic cryoablation compared with rats that underwent partial hepatectomy (P < .005). We evaluated NF-kappa B activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in nuclear extracts of liver and lung after cryosurgery and found that NF-kappa B activation was strikingly increased in the liver but not the lung at 30 minutes and in both organs 1 hour after cryosurgery, and returned to baseline in both organs by 2 hours. In rats undergoing 35% hepatectomy, no increase in NF-kappa B activation was detected in nuclear extracts of either liver or lung at any time point.

CONCLUSIONS - These data show that hepatic cryosurgery results in systemic inflammation with activation of NF-kappa B and increased production of NF-kappa B-dependent cytokines. Our data suggest that lung injury and death in this animal model is mediated by an exaggerated inflammatory response to cryosurgery.

MeSH Terms (18)

Acute Disease Animals Chemokine CXCL2 Cryosurgery Cytokines Disease Models, Animal Hepatectomy Humans Inflammation Mediators Liver Lung Lung Injury Monokines NF-kappa B Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley Time Factors Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

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