In humans, the actions of angiotensin II are transduced through the AT1 and AT2 receptors which have recently been implicated in renal organogenesis. Polymorphisms in the human angiotensin II receptor genes have been linked to cardiovascular and nephrological disorders. In this study we evaluated 35 patients with either primary obstructive megaureter or posterior urethral valves. Each was genotyped for the A1166 AT1 polymorphism and the recently described A-1332G AT2 transition. The incidence of these genetic variants was also evaluated in normal controls without any ultrasonographic urological abnormalities. Similar to our previous findings in congenital urological abnormalities, the AT1 receptor genotype distribution did not differ between patients with either primary obstructive megaureter or posterior urethral valves versus controls. In contrast, compared with normal controls, there was a dramatic increase in the occurrence of the AT2 A-1332G transition in patients with primary obstructive megaureter (75.0% vs. 41.9% in controls, P<0.025). In patients with posterior urethral valves, there was no difference in the occurrence of the transition versus controls (36.9%, P=NS). Thus, there is no correlation between the AT1 receptor gene polymorphism and urological abnormalities. However there is an increased incidence in the AT2 genetic variant in patients with primary obstructive megaureter.