The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a widespread human pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa and is associated with gastro-intestinal illnesses such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer. Current pharmacological therapies are becoming less reliable for the control of H. pylori due to the elevated costs and to the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. New vaccination strategies utilizing H. pylori antigens combined with adjuvants or delivery of antigens by attenuated Salmonella strains have been successful in protecting mice against H. pylori infections. Oral immunization with single doses of urease-expressing Salmonella vaccine strains elicits mucosal and systemic antibody responses and fully protects different mouse strains against challenge infections with H. pylori. The high efficacy in the mouse model, combined with remarkable immunogenicity, safety and low-cost production, makes attenuated live recombinant Salmonella promising vaccine candidates for the control of H. pylori-related diseases in humans.