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The relative contribution of hyperglucagonemia to the mechanisms of nitrogen loss during catabolic states has not been clearly established. The present study examines the independent effect of physiologic elevations of plasma glucagon on whole-body protein kinetics, as well as on net amino acid balance across the liver and gastrointestinal tract tissues, in conscious 18-hour-fasted dogs (n = 7). Each study consisted of a 120-minute equilibration period, a 30-minute basal period, and a 150-minute experimental period. Leucine kinetics were measured using L-[1-14C]leucine. Pancreatic hormones were maintained by infusing intravenous somatostatin (0.8 micrograms/kg.min), intraportal insulin (275 microU/kg.min), and intraportal glucagon (0.65 ng/kg.min basally and 2.5 experimentally). Dextrose was infused to maintain plasma glucose constant (14.1 +/- 0.3 mumol/L), thereby providing a consistent metabolic steady state for the study of protein and amino acid metabolism. In the experimental period, plasma glucagon was fourfold basal levels (112 +/- 10 v 32 +/- 6 pg/mL), whereas plasma insulin remained stable (mean, 10 +/- 1 microU/mL). Hepatic glucose production was increased 30%, but leucine rates of appearance ([Ra] proteolysis), oxidative disappearance (Rd), and nonoxidative Rd (protein synthesis) were not altered during the experimental period. Furthermore, the net release of amino acids by the gastrointestinal tract was not increased by glucagon. However, uptake and extraction of amino acids by the liver were increased, resulting in a 17% decrease in total plasma amino acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
It was hypothesized that the exercise-induced changes in glucoregulatory hormones and glucose production (Ra) occur as a result of a small deficit in glucose availability. To test this, 18-h fasted dogs performed 150 min of treadmill exercise with either the liver as the sole source of glucose (controls, n = 5) or with glucose infused from 0 to 50 min (period 1) and from 100 to 150 min (period 3) at rates designed to track the glucose utilization (Rd) response (ExoGlc, n = 5). The liver alone supplied glucose from 50 to 100 min (period 2). Isotopic and arteriovenous methods were used to assess Ra, Rd, and gluconeogenesis (GNG). Variable [3H]glucose infusion and frequent sampling were used to facilitate Ra measurements. Arterial glucose declined by -3.1 +/- 1.4, -4.3 +/- 2.9, and -6.4 +/- 3.7 mg/dl in periods 1-3 in controls (changes are mean values during each of the 50-min periods; P < 0.05). In ExoGlc, arterial glucose did not deviate from basal in periods 1 (+0.1 +/- 1.8 mg/dl) and 3 (+1.5 +/- 4.5 mg/dl) but fell from basal (P < 0.05) by the same amount as controls in period 2 (-5.7 +/- 2.1 mg/dl). Matching the Rd response with exogenous glucose led to increases in arterial and portal vein plasma insulin levels (P < 0.05) but did not affect glucagon, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol levels. Ra was elevated by 3.1 +/- 0.5, 4.0 +/- 1.1, and 4.7 +/- 1.1 mg.kg-1.min-1 in periods 1-3 in controls (P < 0.05). In ExoGlc, Ra rose by 0.0 +/- 0.4, 4.1 +/- 1.4 (P < 0.05), and 0.4 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1, respectively, in periods 1-3. The rise in Ra was reduced in periods 1 and 3 of ExoGlc compared with controls (P < 0.02). GNG rose to approximately 250% basal in controls and did not respond with any significant difference in ExoGlc. In summary, the exercise-induced increases in counterregulatory hormones and GNG are present even when a deficit in glucose supply is eliminated by an exogenous glucose infusion. In contrast, the fall in insulin and the rise in hepatic glycogenolysis are greatly attenuated. The regulatory components affected by exogenous glucose predominate at the liver as deviations in plasma glucose of approximately 4% correspond to approximately 60% changes in Ra.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Phenacylimidazolium ions have the capacity to promote hepatic glycogen synthesis in vitro via activation of glycogen synthase and inactivation of phosphorylase. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether these compounds alter net hepatic substrate balance in vivo. Following a control period somatostatin was infused into 42h-fasted, conscious dogs and insulin (3X-basal) and glucagon (basal) were replaced intraportally. The glucose load to the liver was doubled with a peripheral glucose infusion and the phenacylimidazolium compound, 254236 (EX; n = 5) was infused intraportally at varying rates in four separate periods (0 (P1), 0.5 (P2), 1.0 (P3), 2.0 (P4) mumol kg-1 min-1). In a separate group of animals (C; n = 5) saline was infused intraportally during P1-P4 to match the volume rate of delivery that occurred in EX. In C net hepatic glucose uptake was 8.5 +/- 1.7 mumol kg-1 min-1 during P1 and did not change significantly throughout the study. In EX net hepatic glucose uptake increased (p < 0.05) from 9.0 +/- 2.5 during P1 to 16.2 +/- 3.1 mumol kg-1 min-1 during P4. Whereas net hepatic lactate output was evident throughout P1-P4 in C, the liver consistently switched to net lactate uptake during P3 (1.2 +/- 1.7 mumol kg-1 min-1) and P4 (2.2 +/- 1.0 mumol kg-1 min-1) in EX. Sympathoadrenal activation (increased catecholamines) was evident in EX during period 4. The increased hepatic retention of carbon (glucose and lactate) coincident with 254236 infusion in conscious dogs is less than that observed in vitro but is consistent with a role for phenacylimidazolium ions in promoting hepatic glycogen synthesis.
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are commonly seen in obese and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitis (NIDDM) patients. While it is known that chronic exposure to severe hyperinsulinemia can lead to an insulin-resistant state and mild hyperinsulinemia for rather short durations (20 to 40 hours) and can also lead to insulin resistance, it is less clear whether mild hyperinsulinemia for a more prolonged duration can lead to insulin resistance. In the present study we determined the effects of chronic (28 days) exposure to mild hyperinsulinemia on insulin-stimulated glucose use. Chronic hyperinsulinemia was produced by an intraportal infusion of porcine insulin (425 microU/kg/min), which raised the basal peripheral insulin levels by approximately 50%. Insulin responsiveness was assessed using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (2 mU/kg/min) in dogs before the induction of chronic hyperinsulinemia (day 0), after 28 days of hyperinsulinemia (day 28), and 28 days after discontinuation of the chronic insulin infusion (day 56). The amount of glucose (M) required to maintain euglycemia during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was decreased (relative to day 0) 39% +/- 3% on day 28 and 18% +/- 3% on day 56 (P less than .05). In control animals that received a chronic infusion of saline for the 28-day period the glucose infusion rate (M) was not changed significantly (decreasing 2% +/- 5% and 5% +/- 10% on days 28 and 56, respectively). In conclusion insulin resistance can be produced by a mild hypersecretion of insulin and discontinuation of the chronic insulin infusion tends to reverse the resistance.
To examine the relationship between net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) and the insulin level and to determine the effects of portal glucose delivery on that relationship, NHGU was evaluated at three different insulin levels in seven 42-h-fasted, conscious dogs during peripheral glucose delivery and during a combination of peripheral and portal glucose delivery. During peripheral glucose delivery, at arterial blood glucose levels of approximately 175 mg/dl and insulin levels reaching the liver of 51 +/- 2, 92 +/- 6, and 191 +/- 6 microU/ml, respectively, NHGUs were 0.55 +/- 0.30, 1.52 +/- 0.44, and 3.04 +/- 0.79 mg/kg per min, respectively. At hepatic glucose loads comparable to those achieved during peripheral glucose delivery and inflowing insulin levels of 50 +/- 4, 96 +/- 5, and 170 +/- 8 microU per ml, respectively, NHGUs were 1.96 +/- 0.48, 3.67 +/- 0.68, and 5.52 +/- 0.92 mg/kg per min when a portion of the glucose load was delivered directly into the portal vein. The results of these studies thus indicate that net hepatic glucose uptake is dependent on both the plasma insulin level and the route of glucose delivery and that under physiological conditions the "portal" signal is at least as important as insulin in the determination of net hepatic glucose uptake.
To examine the relationship between the magnitude of the negative arterial-portal glucose gradient and net hepatic glucose uptake, two groups of 42-h fasted, conscious dogs were infused with somatostatin, to suppress endogenous insulin and glucagon secretion, and the hormones were replaced intraportally to create hyperinsulinemia (3- to 4-fold basal) and basal glucagon levels. The hepatic glucose load to the liver was doubled and different negative arterial-portal glucose gradients were established by altering the ratio between portal and peripheral vein glucose infusions. In protocol 1 (n = 6) net hepatic glucose uptake was 42.2 +/- 6.7, 35.0 +/- 3.9, and 33.3 +/- 4.4 mumol.kg-1.min-1 at arterial-portal plasma glucose gradients of -4.1 +/- 0.9, -1.8 +/- 0.4, and -0.8 +/- 0.1 mM, respectively. In protocol 2 (n = 6) net hepatic glucose uptake was 26.1 +/- 2.8 and 12.2 +/- 1.7 mumol.kg-1.min-1 at arterial-portal plasma glucose gradients of -0.9 +/- 0.2 and -0.4 +/- 0.1 mM, respectively. No changes in the hepatic insulin or glucose loads were evident within a given protocol. Although net hepatic glucose uptake was lower in protocol 2 when compared with protocol 1 (26.1 +/- 2.8 vs. 33.3 +/- 4.4 mumol.kg-1.min-1) in the presence of a similar arterial-portal plasma glucose gradient (-0.9 vs. -0.8 mM) the difference could be attributed to the hepatic glucose load being lower in protocol 2 (i.e., hepatic fractional glucose extraction was not significantly different) primarily as a result of lower hepatic blood flow. In conclusion, in the presence of fixed hepatic glucose and insulin loads, the magnitude of the negative arterial-portal glucose gradient can modify net hepatic glucose uptake in vivo.
The role of the gut and liver in nitrogen metabolism was studied during rest, 150 minutes of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise, and 90 minutes of recovery in 18 hour-fasted dogs (n = 6). Dogs underwent surgery 16 days before an experiment for implantation of catheters in a carotid artery and in the portal and hepatic veins, and Doppler flow cuffs on the hepatic artery and portal vein. Arterial glutamine, alanine, and alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN) levels decreased gradually with exercise (P less than .05), while arterial glutamate, NH3, and urea were unchanged. Net gut glutamine uptake was 1.3 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg.min at rest, and increased transiently to 2.5 +/- 0.3 mumol/kg.min at 60 minutes of exercise (P less than .05) as gut extraction increased. Net hepatic glutamine uptake was 0.6 +/- 0.4 mumol/kg.min at rest, and increased to 3.4 +/- 0.6 and 2.6 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg.min after 60 and 150 minutes of exercise (P less than .05) as hepatic extraction increased. Net gut glutamate and NH3 output both increased transiently with exercise (P less than .05). These increases were matched by parallel increments in the net hepatic uptakes of these compounds. Alanine output by the gut and uptake by the liver were unchanged with exercise. Net gut AAN output was -2.1 +/- 1.8 mumol/kg.min at rest (uptake occurred), and increased transiently to 11.2 +/- 3.5 mumol/kg.min after 30 minutes of exercise (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Increases in the glucose level in the absence of the portal signal or changes in insulin elicits little if any glucose uptake by the liver. NHGU is augmented by a rise in insulin (or drop in glucagon) and is further stimulated by the presence of a portal signal. Under postprandial conditions, NHGU will depend on the dynamic interaction between the pancreatic hormones, glucose and the portal signal. Moreover, in a simulated postprandial environment, the quantitative impact of the portal signal is at least as important as that of insulin. The presence of the portal signal should be of physiologic benefit because it will allow adequate net removal of glucose by the liver without requiring excessive excursions of insulin and glucose. The metabolic fate of ingested glucose within the liver is still controversial. It appears that the liver will remove 30-40% of the glucose that enters the portal vein following an oral glucose load and will replete its glycogen stores by both direct and indirect pathways. Whether the three-carbon precursors utilized by the indirect route are of hepatic or peripheral origin remains a matter of debate. Studies are under way to elucidate whether the hepatic response to the portal signal involves the autonomic nervous system, the nature of the interaction of the portal signal and insulin, and the metabolic fate of glucose removed by the liver in response to this signal.