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We have recently developed a micropuncture technique to assess repeatedly function of the same nephrons in chronic renal disease and subsequently examine the morphology of their glomeruli by serial thin-section histological analysis. Using this approach, a potential causal linkage between early functional patterns and late structural abnormalities was examined in glomeruli of two established rat models of glomerular sclerosis. The models are (a) puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) administration in unilaterally nephrectomized Munich-Wistar rats and (b) adriamycin (ADM) treatment in nonnephrectomized Munich-Wistar rats. Single nephron GFR (SNGFR) and glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure (PGC) were measured repeatedly for 8 (PAN rats) or 31 wk (ADM rats). In all animals studied, values for PGC remained at, or slightly below, levels measured before PAN or ADM administration. SNGFR values declined progressively in all glomeruli in PAN rats. Although some glomeruli in ADM rats had an increase in SNGFR above levels observed in nonnephrectomized control rats, these hyperfiltering glomeruli did not have abnormally high PGC nor did they exhibit glomerular sclerosis at the completion of the study. Histological analysis revealed the existence of a significant inverse correlation between the degree of sclerosis and SNGFR assessed at the time of sacrifice in both PAN and ADM groups. Chronic administration of captopril, an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, in PAN rats substantially attenuated development of glomerular sclerosis without affecting PGC in earlier stages. The observations in these models indicate that glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertension are not required for the development of glomerular sclerosis in renal diseases, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor can exert its protective effect independently of its effect on glomerular capillary pressure.
STUDY OBJECTIVE - To determine the efficacy of a 6-month course of combination chemotherapy with hexamethylmelamine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (H-CAP) in the treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma.
DESIGN - Prospective, non-randomized, single-institution trial with a 6-month course of chemotherapy, followed by second-look laparotomy for restaging. Minimum follow-up after completion of therapy is 83 months.
PATIENTS - Fifty-five patients with advanced (stage III or IV), intermediate- or high-grade epithelial carcinoma of the ovary. Twenty patients had limited residual tumor (3 cm or less maximal tumor diameter) after initial cytoreductive surgery; 35 had extensive residual disease.
INTERVENTIONS - All patients received chemotherapy with hexamethylmelamine (150 mg/m2 body surface area orally on days 1 to 14), cyclophosphamide (350 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8), doxorubicin (20 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8), and cisplatin (60 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1). Courses were repeated at 4-week intervals; 41 patients (75%) received six courses; 10 patients received five courses, 3 patients received four courses, and 1 patients received three courses. Forty-seven patients underwent second-look laparotomy after completion of therapy; 8 had their disease restaged clinically.
RESULTS - Fifty-three of fifty-five patients (96%) had either partial or complete response to treatment. Nineteen of forty-seven patients who had a second-look laparotomy had a surgically documented complete response; 17 of these 19 patients began chemotherapy with limited residual tumor. Ten patients (18%) remain disease-free 83 to 108 months after therapy, whereas three additional patients died of other diseases without clinical evidence of recurrent ovarian cancer. Nine of twenty patients who began chemotherapy with limited residual tumor remain disease-free, as compared to only 1 of 35 patients with more extensive tumor (P less than 0.001). All long-term, disease-free survivors had surgically documented complete response at second-look laparotomy.
CONCLUSIONS - Treatment with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after aggressive cytoreductive surgery should be considered standard treatment for advanced ovarian carcinoma. Our intensive, 6-month course of treatment produced results comparable to those previously reported with prolonged treatment.
Twelve patients with malignant mixed mullerian tumors were treated with combination chemotherapy at Vanderbilt University Hospital from 1977 through 1981. Nine patients, all of whom received combination chemotherapy with hexamethylmelamine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (HCAP), were evaluable for response. Objective responses (all partial responses) were noted in 3 (33.3%) (response rate greater than 10% and less than 55% with 90% confidence limits), a minimal response was noted in one patient, and stable disease in four (50%) patients. Responders survived longer (calculated from the initiation of HCAP) than nonresponders (median 112 vs 19 weeks). These results are not at present statistically different from previous studies utilizing doxorubicin alone, cisplatin alone, the combination of doxorubicin and DTIC, or the combination of vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide.
Nine (2%) of 429 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients seen at Vanderbilt University between 1977 and 1983 had a combined subtype SCLC at diagnosis (ie, small-cell carcinoma plus squamous cell or adenocarcinoma). Staging procedures and chemotherapy treatment were uniform for all 429 patients. The diagnosis of combined histology was established via bronchoscopy (six patients), needle aspiration biopsy (one), lymph node biopsy (one), and thoracotomy (one). The clinical characteristics of the combined subtype patients were similar to patients with other subtypes of SCLC (ie, there were no differences in median age, sex, performance status, and stage of disease). However, patients with a combined subtype histology had a higher incidence of peripheral lesions on chest x-ray (56% v 14%, P less than .001) and a lower median lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (301 IU/L v 341 IU/L, P = .0002) at diagnosis. The overall response to chemotherapy (57% v 78; P = .5) and the median survival (8 months v 10 months; P = .4) of the combined subtype patients were similar to patients with other subtypes of SCLC. Two (22%) combined histology patients survived greater than or equal to 5 years. Both had had surgical resection in addition to chemotherapy. These data suggest that the combined subtype of SCLC is clinically similar to pure SCLCs and that surgery may play a prominent role in the management of these tumors. The possibility of a combined histology tumor should be considered in patients thought to have SCLC on the basis of limited biopsy material, such as a needle aspiration or bronchial biopsy, and when the primary lesion is peripherally located on chest x-ray.
STUDY OBJECTIVE - To define the clinical features and results of systemic treatment in women with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site involving predominantly the peritoneal surfaces.
DESIGN - Retrospective analysis of 18 patients treated at a single institution between 1978 and 1984.
PATIENTS - All 18 women had abdominal carcinomatosis and had no primary site identified at laparotomy. Nine patients had limited residual tumor (maximal tumor diameter, 3 cm or less) after initial cytoreductive surgery, and 9 patients had extensive residual disease.
INTERVENTIONS - In general, patients were treated according to standard guidelines for treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma. All patients had initial laparotomy with attempted cytoreduction; of these 18 patients, 16 subsequently received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients were restaged either clinically (10 patients) or with second-look surgery (8 patients).
RESULTS - The median survival for all patients was 23 months. Five patients had complete response to chemotherapy, and three patients remain disease-free 41, 59, and 77 months after diagnosis. Patients with limited residual disease had longer median survival than did those with extensive residual disease (31 months compared with 11 months).
CONCLUSIONS - Women with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site involving predominantly the peritoneal surface should be distinguished from other patients with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site because they have a more indolent disease course, a higher response rate to systemic therapy, and a chance for long-term, disease-free survival after therapy. Although optimal treatment is undefined, we recommend that these patients be treated using the guidelines established for therapy of advanced ovarian carcinoma, including initial surgical cytoreduction followed by cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy.
We treated 25 newly diagnosed patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer with an intensive induction chemotherapy regimen using high-dose cisplatin in combination with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. All patients had either stage IIIC or stage IV disease. Two intensive induction courses of chemotherapy were administered at 28-day intervals, which consisted of cisplatin 40 mg/m2 daily for 5 days, cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 day 1, and doxorubicin 40 mg/m2 day 1. Four courses of chemotherapy using cisplatin 60 mg/m2, doxorubicin 40 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 followed the high-dose induction therapy. Two of the first six patients died during high-dose induction therapy (one died of neutropenia and sepsis, one of intercurrent intracerebral hemorrhage). Doxorubicin was subsequently omitted from the induction therapy due to unacceptable myelosuppression; no deaths occurred in the remaining 19 patients, and myelosuppression was manageable. Peripheral neuropathy was the most severe side effect with this regimen. This complication was unpredictable, developed during the third or fourth month of treatment, and was disabling in five patients. Other toxicity included prolonged nausea and vomiting (eight patients), ototoxicity (five patients), and nephrotoxicity (two patients), but these did not compromise therapy. All 23 assessable patients had objective response to therapy. Four of 12 patients who underwent second-look laparotomy had pathologic complete response, while four additional patients had only microscopic residual disease. The median survival for the entire group was 25 months. Four patients remain continuously disease-free 23 to 48 months following completion of therapy. Although this regimen was tolerated by most patients, the unpredictable occurrence of disabling neuropathy may limit its usefulness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To evaluate the contribution of hexamethylmelamine (HMM) to the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with combination chemotherapy, we compared the results of treatment with HMM, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (H-CAP regimen) to treatment results using cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (CAP regimen). The treatment regimens were identical in dosage and schedule with the exception of the addition of HMM to one regimen. Fifty-five patients treated with H-CAP at Vanderbilt University Hospital between August 1977 and March 1980 were compared with a subsequent group of 22 patients who received CAP between October 1984 and October 1987. Following six months of therapy, patients were restaged either with second-look laparotomy or with clinical restaging. Fifty-three of 55 patients (96%) had objective responses to H-CAP compared with 14 of 21 patients (67%) treated with CAP (p = 0.001). The pathologic complete response rate was also higher in the patients who received H-CAP (35% versus 19%). The median survival of patients receiving H-CAP is 47 months compared to 21 months for the CAP patients. When patients with limited residual disease (maximum tumor diameter less than or equal to 3 cm) were compared, the median survival also favored the H-CAP treatment (101 months versus 21 months, p = 0.002). The median time to progression was also greater in patients receiving H-CAP versus those receiving CAP (67 months versus 16 months, p = 0.045). Treatment-related toxicity did not differ substantially between the two regimens. Our findings suggest that the addition of HMM to CAP chemotherapy prolongs the median survival in patients with ovarian cancer and limited residual disease following cytoreductive surgery.
Between 1979 and 1988, 26 patients with pulmonary metastases from adult soft-tissue sarcomas were treated with Adriamycin (doxorubicin hydrochloride), Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide), and DTIC before metastasectomy. Thirty-eight thoracotomies were performed with postoperative complications in 5 patients (5/38, 13.2%) and one postoperative death (1/38, 2.6%). Two patients had benign lesions at thoracotomy and were excluded from further survival analysis. The median survival of the remaining 24 patients after thoracotomy was 18.5 +/- 5.9 months, and the actuarial 5-year survival was 22%. Five patients (5/24, 21%) achieved a clinically complete response with preoperative chemotherapy, but all had recurrence in the lung and underwent resection of pulmonary metastases. Seven patients (7/24, 29%) achieved a partial response and had residual disease resected at thoracotomy. Twelve patients (12/24, 50%) showed either no change or disease progression while receiving chemotherapy and were referred for resection. Postthoracotomy disease-free survival and postthoracotomy overall survival did not differ significantly between the three groups. One patient in the group showing no change or progression of disease while receiving chemotherapy is alive without recurrence 57 months after initial pulmonary metastasectomy. Chemotherapy can be used for the initial treatment of pulmonary metastases from adult soft-tissue sarcomas. However, survival after resection of pulmonary metastases cannot be accurately predicted based on the clinical response to preoperative chemotherapy.
To study the effect of chelation of iron ions by quinones on the generation of OH radicals in biological redox systems, we have synthesized quinones that can form complexes with Fe(III) ions: 2-phenyl-4-(butylamino)naphtho[2,3-h]quinoline-7,12-dione (Qbc) and 2-phenyl-4-(octylamino)naphtho[2,3-h]quinoline-7,12-dione (Qoc). A quinone with a similar structure without chelating group was synthesized as a control sample: 2-phenyl-5-nitronaphtho[2,3-g]indole-6,11-dione (Qn). Using optical spectroscopy, we determined the stability constant of Qbc with Fe(III) [Ks = (7 +/- 1) x 10(18) M-3] and the stoichiometry of the complex Fe(Qbc)3 in chloroform solutions. One-electron reduction potentials of Qbc, Qn, and adriamycin in dimethyl sulfoxide were measured by cyclic voltammetry. In the presence of Fe(III) the one-electron reduction potentials shifted toward positive values by 0.16 and 0.1 V for Qbc and adriamycin, respectively. Using the spin trap 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyroline N-oxide (DMPO) and EPR, it was found that Qbc in the Fe(III) complex stimulated the formation of OH radicals in the enzymatic system consisting of NADPH and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase more efficiently than adriamycin and quinone Qn. This is indicated by the absence of a lag period in the spin adduct appearance for Qbc and by a significantly higher rate of the spin adduct production, as well as by a larger absolute concentration of the spin adduct obtained for Qbc in comparison with Qn in the presence of Fe(III).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)