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Inv(16)(p13q22) is one of the most frequent chromosomal rearrangements found in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), representing approximately 16% of documented karyotypic abnormalities. The inv(16) breakpoints have been cloned and shown to involve the non-DNA binding component of the AML-1 transcription factor complex termed core binding factor beta gene (CBF beta) on 16q and the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain gene (MYH11) on 16p. In this study, we analyzed 37 cases of inv(16)-containing AML and 4 cases with t(16;16)(p13;q22) for expression of the CBF beta/MYH11 chimeric message by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. CBF beta/MYH11 chimeric messages were detected in 33 of 37 cases with the inv(16) and in the 4 t(16;16)-containing cases. Sequence analysis of PCR products showed extensive breakpoint heterogeneity in both CBF beta and MYH11. In addition to the previously described breakpoint in CBF beta at nucleotide (nt) 495 (amino acid 165), we have identified a second novel fusion point at nt 399 (amino acid 133) in 7% of the cases. Similarly, a unique breakpoint site was identified in MYH11 at nt 1098, as well as at three previously characterized sites at nts 994, 1201, and 1921. Of the 4 PCR-negative cases, 2 of 3 tested lacked CBF beta rearrangements by Southern blot analysis, suggesting the possible involvement of a different genomic locus in some cases with cytogenetic evidence of inv(16). To assess whether the portions of CBF-beta contained within the CBF beta/MYH11 chimeric products retain the ability to interact with their heterodimeric DNA-binding partner AML-1, we performed in vitro DNA-binding analysis. Recombinant CBF-beta polypeptides consisting of the N-terminal 165 amino acids retained their ability to interact with AML-1, whereas mutants containing only the N-terminal 133 amino acids interacted with AML-1 less efficiently. These data suggest that different CBF beta/MYH11 products may vary subtly in their biologic activities.
It has been proposed that benign nevi that fail to differentiate normally may undergo stepwise growth and morphologic changes resulting in progression toward dysplastic nevi, which in some cases progress into malignant melanoma. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship between production of endogenous growth factors and the appearance of chromosomal abnormalities in cultured nevi and melanomas. Newly established cultures from 8 nevi with benign histology and 6 malignant melanomas, and 2 malignant melanoma cell lines were studied. Assays for mitogenic growth factors were based on stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in Hs0294 malignant melanoma cells, produced by serum-free conditioned medium from nevus or melanoma cultures. Karyotypes were examined in cultures of an equivalent passage. Three of the 8 nevus cultures were mitogen-negative and displayed normal karyotypes; one nevus culture was mitogen-positive and had a normal karyotype, although the biopsied tissue demonstrated histologic evidence of benign melanocytic proliferation; one was mitogen-negative initially, but had an extra chromosome 8 in 2 of 50 cells; 3 were mitogen-positive and chromosomally abnormal. Each of the cultures in this latter group exhibited reciprocal translocation (rcpt) as the only identifiable abnormality [rcpt(6;15), rcpt(10;15), rcpt(15;20)], or a constitutional rcpt(4;5). Thus, there was direct correlation between growth factor production and chromosome abnormality in 6 of 8 benign nevus cultures. In the newly established melanoma cultures there was also concordance between growth factor and chromosomal status; conditioned media from 4 of 6 were mitogen-positive by at least one assay, and all 4 of the mitogen-positive cultures had chromosomally abnormal cell populations. Of the 2 melanoma cultures negative for growth factors, one was also negative for chromosome abnormality; the other had chromosomal change consisting of increased polyploidy. Both melanoma cell lines had abnormal karyotypes and were mitogen-positive. Though numerous chromosome changes were noted in the karyotypically abnormal melanoma cells, 6 of the 8 cultures exhibited abnormalities in chromosomes 1, 6, and/or 7. These data suggest that steps in the progression from benign nevi toward dysplastic nevi or malignant melanoma include: proliferation resulting from altered production of endogenous mitogenic growth factors; and development of specific chromosomal abnormalities.
We report on 2 patients (3 1/2 year-old-male and 6-year-old female) with the ring 15 chromosome syndrome and speech delays and review 25 cases from the literature. The main characteristics of this syndrome include growth retardation (100%), variable mental retardation (95%), microcephaly (88%), hypertelorism (46%), and triangular facies (42%). Other frequent findings include delayed bone age (75%), brachydactyly (44%), speech delay (39%), frontal bossing (36%), anomalous ears (30%), café-au-lait spots (30%), cryptorchidism (30%), and cardiac abnormalities (30%). The average age at diagnosis was 8.1 years. The average maternal and paternal age at the time of birth was 28 and 31 years, respectively.
Fragile X syndrome is a common form of mental retardation associated with a fragile site on the human X chromosome. We have recently demonstrated that the fragile X chromosome, when isolated within a somatic cell hybrid, often participates in translocations involving rodent chromosome arms. Cytogenetic and molecular evidence strongly suggests that the human breakpoint of these translocations is within the fragile X sequence. Hence, the joining of heterologous DNA (i.e. from two species) may permit the molecular cloning of the fragile X site. We describe here the cloning approach employed to enhance the isolation of interspecific chromosome translocation junctions. The human portion of the translocation junction should be derived from the fragile X site sequence.
Cultures from metastatic melanomas of 15 patients had detailed melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) and cytogenetic analysis. The presence of melanoma cells was confirmed by microscopic identification of melanin, tyrosinase activity, and electron microscopy characterization of melanosomes. The MGSA is found in cytoplasmic granules after immunocytochemical stain. Three of the cultures did not produce MGSA and showed no distinctive cytogenetic differences. Breakpoints in derivative chromosomes were concentrated in region 1p1, and among all cultures chromosome 1 was the most frequently rearranged. It also has a low copy number of normal homologs. Chromosomes 18, X, and Y were never derivative, and chromosomes 2 and 4 were rarely so. Thus the cytogenetic data indicate that 4q13-21, the hybridization site for MGSA cDNA, is spared from gross change, although it could be under the influence of another site on chromosome 1 that is lost or rearranged. The ratio of abnormal to normal autosomes (mean per cell) in no culture exceeded 0.5, and for no autosome exceeded 0.8, suggesting a limit to the rearrangement tolerated for cell survival. If the Y is retained, the X:Y ratio varies around a normal figure of 1. The ratio of autosomes to sex chromosomes varies around a normal figure of 22. These data suggest stability of the X chromosome in cells undergoing multiple rearrangements of the autosomes.
Giant-cell bone tumors are considered to be benign proliferations composed of poorly differentiated mononuclear cells and large multinucleated giant cells with the appearance of osteoclasts. Treatment is usually surgical resection, but there is a small risk of local recurrence and metastasis. Cytogenetic analyses were performed on giant-cell bone tumors of six consecutive patients. Chromosomally abnormal clones were found in three of the tumors, but no two patients had the same chromosome abnormality. Thus, there was no correlation between any specific chromosome change and the clinical behavior or histology of giant-cell bone tumors. However, all of the tumors had a significantly higher incidence of nonclonal chromosome abnormalities than is encountered in cultures of normal cells. The most common nonclonal abnormalities involved unusual telomere-to-telomere chromosome translocations. These findings suggest that the cells in these tumors are chromosomally unstable. The telomeres most frequently involved were on the long arm of chromosomes 19 and 20.
We describe a human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), called ZS, that originated spontaneously from the cultures of gamma-irradiated (50 Gy) peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of a normal donor. When injected subcutaneously in sublethally irradiated, splenectomized and anti-asialo-GM1-treated nude mice, ZS cells invaded the lymph nodes, that appeared 10 to 50-fold enlarged in all of the mice tested. Furthermore, ZS cells expressed a typical T-cell surface structure, the CD2 molecule, detectable by a variety of different anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). However, other T-cell markers were not found, with the possible exception of a truncated messenger of the beta chain of the T-cell receptor and ZS cells could be identified as B cells since they (i) expressed a battery of markers of the resting and activated B cells, (ii) displayed a monoclonal rearrangement of the IgH chain locus and (iii) synthesized IgM K molecules. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome was detected in ZS cells in approximately ten copies per cell by DNA hybridization techniques. Furthermore, the cells were positive for EBV nuclear antigens (EBNA). Western blotting analysis of EBV encoded antigens demonstrated clear differences with those present in the B 95.8 virus-producer cell line, indicating that ZS cells were not infected by EBV in vitro and that they already harbored the virus in vivo. ZS cells formed colonies in vitro with a high cloning efficiency and displayed chromosomal abnormalities in all of the mitoses (karyotype 47, xy, +13, -14, 8p+, 21p+, +m). In spite of these malignant features, ZS cells expressed the full range of EBV latent proteins as usually do "normal" LCSs and did not have any of the chromosomal abnormalities that juxtapose the c-myc oncogene to one of the genes coding for immunoglobulin molecules.
Some early changes associated with atypical nevi, presumed to be progressing toward malignancy, include chromosomal abnormalities and altered production of growth factors, and/or growth factor receptors. Though normal epidermal melanocytes require a number of exogenous growth factors, nevi require fewer growth factors, and most metastatic melanomas are frequently capable of growing without an exogenous supply of growth factors. This is apparently caused by endogenous production of essential growth factors. Our laboratory focuses on melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA), one of the endogenously produced growth factors, and the role it plays in tumor progression. MGSA is a member of the beta-thromboglobulin super family. These genes code for cytokines, which modulate the inflammatory response. The MGSA protein is highly chemotactic for neutrophils and competes with 125I-interleukin-8 for binding sites on neutrophil receptors. When normal immortalized mouse melanocytes are manipulated so that they overexpress the MGSA gene, the melanocytes form large colonies in soft agar and melanoma tumors in nude mice. These data suggest that the MGSA protein can potentially play a role in melanoma tumor progression.
The cytogenetic analysis of a rare, nonirradiated case of giant cell tumor of bone with osteogenic sarcoma transformation is presented for the first time in a 19-year-old female. Telomeric associations involving 4p, 8p, 11p, 14p, 17p, 17q, and 20q were observed. Additionally, monosomy 13, 11p abnormalities and marker chromosomes were identified in tumor cells. Chromosome 11 involvement, particularly 11p translocations and 11p telomeric associations, were frequently observed in the tumor cells obtained from our patient, which suggests that chromosome 11p may play a role in the development of giant cell osteogenic sarcoma.